Comprehensive notes Networking Fundamentals Class 10

In this article, we are going to cover networking fundamentals class 10 which is the learning outcome 2 of Unit 4 web applications and security for class 10 IT 402. So here we begin!

Comprehensive notes Networking Fundamentals Class 10

I have already written the following articles which cover the basics of networking that makes you clear about some network concepts. Just have a look:

Networking Basics

Network Evolution

Network Architecture

There are two types of network architectures:

  1. P2P Architecture
  2. Client-Server Architecture

P2P Architecture

This network architecture is common and simple network architecture. All the computers connected to this type of network have the common and equal status. Every computer or node or terminal equally capable to do the work and provide services.

Client-Server Architecture

There is one leader of the pack called server in the network. This server is responsible for providing services and permissions in the network. Rest all computers are called clients. Clients can just make a request but totally controlled by a server in the network.

Follow this link to understand about types of network. This link will explain the question What are different types of networking class 10?

Network types and topologies

Getting access to the internet

As we are using the internet either with mobile or any other medium. So now you are going to learn what other types of internet connectivity and associated concepts are there in the next section of Comprehensive notes Networking Fundamentals Class 10.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company which provides an internet services to the people. For example, Jio, Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, BSNL etc. These companies provides the internet connection via cable services or wireless.

Generally small business used DSL, modem, broadband, dial up, WiMax or 4G connectivity, where as medium or large organizations uses high speed connectivity. So in the next section of Networking Fundamentals Class 10, you will learn about the internet connectivity

Before going to start this, I would like recommend you this article for network devices:

Network devices

In the class 10 computer networking notes or CBSE study material they have given following types of internet connectivity:

  1. Dialup
  2. DSL
  3. Cable Internet Access
  4. 3G
  5. WiMAX
  6. Wi-Fi


In this type of connectivity a number is provided to dial up whenever you want internet connectivity. Generally this type of connectivity uses Public Switched Telephonic Network (PSTN) to establish an internet connection with ISP.

The dialup internet connectivity requires a telephone line using a MODEM. The dialup connections are very slow in speed.


The DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line, that provide internet connectivity and access by transmitting digital data over wires of local telephone network. It can be given on the same telephone.

DSL filter removes the high frequency interference that make the use of telephone and internet on same number. For using DSL connectivity a DSL Modem and Subscription of a valid internet plan is required.

Cable Internet Access

An internet connectivity is provided through the existing cable lines. Cable internet access is provided through main two cable lines:

  1. TV Network
  2. Telephone lines

It is similar to DSL.


Here G stands for the Generation. Generation means the standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunication services networks. 3G technology uses HSPDA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) protocol which allows high-speed data transfer and capacity as well. Nowadays 3G is replaced by 4G on your mobile.


The 4th Generation is all about faster internet compared to earlier generations. It offers many advancements to the WiFi internet. For example provides downlink data rates over 100 Mbps, low latency, very efficient spectrum use and low-cost implications.

4G technology is also referred to by “MAGIC” stands for Mobile multimedia, Any-where, Global mobility solutions over, Integrated Wireless and Customized Services. 4G uses technology like LTE (Lon Term Evolution).

Follow this link to understand the difference between Gprs, Edge, 3g, Hsdpa, Hspa+ And 4g Lte.


WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It offers mobile broadband connectivity across cities and countries using variety of devices. It is capable to covering longs kilometers and those areas where DSL and Cable Internet Access is not feasible or used.


As we all are using this type of connectivity for internet. It uses mobiles or computers with WAP (Wireless Access Point). It is used where cables cannot be used or where the mobile connectivity is required.

WiFi is mostly used in the offices, homes, shopping malls, public places like railway stations, bus terminals, coffee shops, resorts etc. It can be connected using WiFi hotspot from device to device.

Now in the next section of Comprehensive notes Networking Fundamentals Class 10, you will learn how data transfer on the internet.

Data Transfer on the Internet

Have you ever imagine how the web sites and data is delivered to you? In this section of Comprehensive notes Networking Fundamentals Class 10, you are going to know about this. Here it is!

  1. The data is divided into small units called packets in the network and make ready to deliver from one device to another device.
  2. These packets sent from computer to computer until it finds its destination. Each computer or device decides the next destination where the packet needs to be sent. All packets may not take the same route.
  3. At the destination, the packets are examined. If any packets are missing or damaged, a message is sent asking for them to be re-sent. This continues until all packets have been received intact.
  4. The packets are now reassembled into their original form. All of this is done in seconds!

You are familiar with how to connect with WiFi and hotspot from your mobile to laptop. If you know then type “I know how to connect WiFi hotspot”, if don’t know then type “I don’t know how to connect WiFi hotspot” in the comment section.

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