Computer Application (165) Notes | Unit 1 Networking

CBSE Computer Applications class 10 Unit 1 Networking

Computer Application class 10 Unit 1 Networking
Computer Application class 10 Unit 1 Networking
Image by Pete Linforth from Pixabay 
In this post, you will get detailed notes for CBSE Computer Applications class 10 Unit 1 Networking. This unit covers basic aspects of Networking in CBSE Computer Applications class 10 syllabus. So following topics we will cover in this post.

What is networking and example?

Do you know something about what is networking and example? So before going to discuss the answers you should know about the network. In simple words, Network refers to a group of computers connected to each other for sharing resources and files by using protocols and other rules. Networking is the process of understanding or working with the network. The greatest example of networking is the Internet. It is a group of millions of computer connected globally. So let us discuss the internet.


Image by Gordon Johnson from Pixabay 
Internet is the greatest factor for today’s world of information. Today we are mostly depended on internet for information whether it is a matter of sharing data on social media or cooking a dish or searching answers of any question or learning through youtube or solving a technical issue or problem. In fact, the internet is a part of our routine life. So there are a few important components of the internet which playing an important role to supply this information to us. These include:
  1. Worl Wide Web, Web Servers, Web Clients, Web sites, Web pages, web browsers
  2. Blogs
  3. newsgroups
  4. HTML
  5. Web address, e-mail address
  6. Files

World Wide Web, Web Servers, Web Clients, Web sites, Web pages, web browsers

Worl Wide Web

World wide web is abbreviated as WWW. It is also known as W3C consortium. Consortium means association. Every website on the internet starts WWW. It is an association which forms a standard and rules for the redirecting information through the internet. It provides us with information from web servers.

Web servers

Let understand the server concept first. As if we need any provision item for our home we generally buy it from a mall or provision store. So the mall or provision store is like the server and we are a client. Similarly, servers refer to serving the data into the network. It is one computer which holds software, data and information. A server for the world wide web for a particular website is called webserver.

Web clients

Web clients are generally referred to users who are seeking information through the world wide web. Any user who wants any information and searching on the internet is known as a web client.

Web Sites

Website is a collection of many related web pages. It is just like a book which contains many pages.


A webpage is an electronic page of a website which consists of text, images, hyperlinks, audio and video. A webpage is developed by using HTML.

Web browser

Web browsers
Web browsers
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay 
A web browser is a software or application which renders a web page or website on your computer or device. Some popular web browsers are google chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Apple Safari etc.


A website can be produced in two ways.
    1. Developed by using a scripting language: If you want to develop a website you need to learn some scripting language or web development or contact a web developer or company which develops a professional website. It is expensive and not suitable for a person who wants to develop a personal website.
    2. Content Management System: Content Management System of CMS is a popular system to develop a website. The website developed using CMS is known as Blogs. There are few popular CMS are as following:
      1. Blogger
      2. WordPress
      3. Tumblr
      4. wix
A person who is developing a blog website is known as a blogger.


Newsgroups are groups facility provided by email service providers. Nowadays people using Whatsapp group which is one example of the newsgroup. In newsgroups, user can share data and information to more than one person who joined the group.  Some other good examples are telegram groups, facebook groups etc.


HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is used to develop static web pages. It is a simple scripting markup language which uses simple words in angular brackets known as tags. You can use any text editor to write the code or script. Then you can use a browser to view the web pages. We will cover more topics in the next unit.

Web address

Every web site has its own virtual place on the world wide web. This virtual place is known as a web address. In other words, the web address is also known as URL (Uniform Resource Locator),  it has the following parts:
  1. http or https: It is a protocol which is transferring the hypertext documents over the world wide web.
  2. Domain Name: Every website has a domain name. For example, googleyahoo, facebook etc.
  3. Top Level Domain: Top Level Domain name is associated with types of website. It is the last part of a web address. For Ex.  .com, .org, .edu, etc.

e-mail address

If you want to use the e-mail facility you need an e-mail address. E-mail is an electronic mail. To send or receive e-mail an e-mail address is required. The e-mail address has the following general form: emailid@domain where
emailid: is a simple username which is a combination of numbers and letters created by the user
@domain: Refers to the domain name on which email-id is created or email-service provider name

Downloading and uploading files

Downloading files refers to saving files from the server to your computer using the internet.
Uploading files refer to saving files from your computer to server using the internet. In an email, the files can be attached while sending the resources.

Internet Protocols

Protocols refer to a set of rules that govern communications. There are some useful protocols used on the internet. They are:
    1. TCP/IP: It stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This protocol helps to facilitate the logical numeric address of a computer in a network.
    2. SMTP: SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol which is responsible for transferring emails.
    3. POP3: POP stands for Post Office Protocol. It works similarly like a post office.
    4. HTTP: We already discussed earlier, click here
    5. HTTPS: S for secured which means your connection is secure. Data which you are sending on sites such pages are private.
    6. SSH: It is an application layer protocol used to provide a secure connection over the internet. Click here to read more. 
    7. SFT: It stands for Secure File Transfer protocol. It runs over secured connections. Click here to read more.
    8. FTP: It stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is used to transfer files over a similar network.
    9. SCP: It stands for Secure Copy Protocol. It is responsible for transferring files between local computer to remote computers and vice versa.
    10. TELNET: It is an application-level protocol which is used to provide interactive text-based connectivity to users.  Click here to read more. 

Services available on the internet

Finding people on the net
Finding people on the net
Internet is a major source of gathering information. So in this section, you will know about some basic services. Some of them are :
    1. Information retrieval: Internet is widely used for information retrieval. There are popular search engines like google, bing, yahoo, ask etc. providing such information based on keywords. User can type a keyword in the search box and google bots retrieve that information from different websites sources.
    2. Locating sites using a search engine: To locate sites using a search engine, the website should be optimized properly through SEO. SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization. There are few techniques used to locate a site using a search engine.
    3. Finding people on the net: Social media is a great place to finding people on the net. People who created there online profile can be found through the net easily. Social media websites are providing this facility. Some popular examples are facebook, Instagram, twitter, Linkedin etc.

Web services

Web Services
Web Services
Web services are an important part of the internet. It provides many solutions to common problems like interact with people, sharing information etc. These web services are as following:
    1. Chat : Chat is liver interactive services through messages on messengers. Messengers are apps or software that allow chatting to internet users. It is also known as Instant Messages. There are two types of IM software:
      1. Web-Based: Running on the website through browsers like WhatsApp web, Facebook Chat, Google Hangout etc.
      2. Application: Through downloaded apps like WhatsApp, Facebook messenger etc.
    2. E-mail: E-mails are very popular services for communication.  User can send a piece of specific information via e-mail. It is helpful to send an invitation, vital information, feedback etc.
    3. Video Conferencing: Video conferencing allow to join people in a virtual meeting from their own places. In this unprecedented situations, 90% of offices and schools are using this technique to conduct their meetings or classes.
    4. e-learning: There are many e-Learning platforms available now in the market. By which anyone can join the courses from home and learn. For ex. Byjus, Vedantu etc.
    5. e-Banking: A few years back India enforced a cashless system to provide strength to the online banking system. In this online banking username and password provided to the bank account holder. He can use this banking to perform various transactions using a web browser or using app of their respective banks.
    6. e-shopping: e-Shopping is a part of e-Commerce. There are many websites which provide online shopping that you may be using. For ex. amazon, flipkart, myntra etc.
    7. e-reservation: This facility allows to book a ticket without visiting a booking window or counter. You can book your bus tickets, train tickets, cab, flight tickets, hotels and many more with e-reservations. Ex. IRCTC, redbus etc.
    8. e-Governance: Have you ever applied for any certificate online from the government? e-Governance refers to the portals used to obtain an online certificate from the government like passport, aadhar card, caste certificate, income certificate etc.

Mobile Technologies

Mobile technologies refer to a mobile system which is commonly used for communication. But nowadays the smartphone can do almost the work which can be done on laptop or PC.  In your syllabus following topics to be covered:
    1. SMS: SMS stands for Short Message Service. It is a basic service of mobile messages. Every mobile service provider like Airtel, Vodafone, Idea etc. You need to buy a valid pack for sending SMS. You can send only text messages using SMS.
    2. MMS: It stands for Multimedia Messaging Service. It allows multimedia files such as photos, videos and audio files.
    3. 3G: In 3g, 3 stands for 3rd generation. It is an internet service. Click here to read more.
    4. 4G: This is an updated version of mobile internet connectivity. Click here to read more.

Thank you for reading the complete article. We have used outside links for topics which help you to gain more detailed knowledge on the topic. If you have doubts feel free to comment.

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