Comprehensive notes on internet and web Class 12 IP

This article – Comprehensive notes on internet and web Class 12 IP is written for class 12 students who is studying subject Informatics Practices. This article provides you notes for the topic internet and web Class 12 IP which is topic of Unit 3 Networking. So here we start!

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internet and web Class 12 IP

As you all are aware of what is the Internet, Still, you wish to read it, follow this link – Internet and networking Basics. So the internet is a network of a huge number of computers linked together worldwide. Let’s start the article internet and web Class 12 IP with the history of the internet.

History of internet

The origin of internet was started in 1969 in U.S., By U.S. Department of Defense with a project named APRANET. ARPANET stands for Advanced Research Project Agency then after few years National Science Foundation create a new project named NSFNet which was more powerful and advanced than ARPANET.

The both projects were mainly created for Inter-Networking and it was renamed as Internet later. Later on the ARPANET was shutdown and NSFNet discontinued but commercial internet came in to the picture and it is still running.

Now have a look at the advantages and disadvantages of internet for internet and web Class 12 IP.

Advantages of Internet

There many advantages of Internet, few of them are listed below:

  1. It is a big library with full of information
  2. Useful for communication
  3. Anyone can connect from anywhere globally
  4. Documents can be shared via emails and other services
  5. Encourage to green economy, reduces the use of papers
  6. A great platform for digital marketing
  7. A great platform for education, business and other sectors

Disadvantages of internet

  1. As the internet has advantages, similarly it has disadvantages as well. These are:
  2. Cyber frauds and cybercrime risk
  3. All information is not relevant
  4. A huge risk of computer viruses and security threats
  5. The spread of incorrect information
  6. Messages and files shared on the internet can be used by unknown people with some tricks
  7. Some health issued may be increased as people using devices for long hours continuously

In the next section of internet and web Class 12 IP, we will discuss about World Wide Web.

World Wide Web(WWW)

With the introduction of WWW in 1989, the use of Internet has totally changed. Earlier it was only used for communication and research purposes. But now a days it is used for so many purposes. Just think about it why you are using internet?

The above question will give so many answers, some of them are as following:

  1. Education
  2. Shopping
  3. Communication
  4. Sharing

Now in internet and web Class 12 IP, let’s discuss about history of WWW.

History of WWW

The WWW was proposed between 1989-1991 by Tim Berners Lee. Later on, it becomes reality with the invention of HTML and a browser. Observe the below-given table to understand the history of WWW:

YearWhat Happened
1989A proposal submitted by Tim Berners Lee for “Distributed Information Systems”
1990The first website published the address was launched – Click here to visit
1991The WWW launched publicly
1992CERN released the source code of WWW for free of cost along with browser
history of internet

Difference between WWW and Internet

As you have seen in the above section of internet and web Class 12 IP, WWW and internet both are not same. There are certain differences between them.

WWW is a part of internet. Whenever you type any web address or URL it starts with WWW. So one is container and another is an item inside it. So the internet is container and www is item. WWW consists of so many websites, these websites have one or more webpages. Read this article to learn more about WWW.

WWW basics

The next section of internet and web Class 12 IP talks about URLs.


URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is an address of a particular website. Every website on internet has a unique address. The URL starts with http or https.

What is HTTP?

HTTP is a protocol that defines some rules and standards for WWW and website. Every web page made with a descriptive language i.e. HTML. HTTP follows a specific URL pattern as follows:



  1. type is the type of server
  2. address is the address of server
  3. path is the location of website file

Elements of URL

The URL has following elements:

  1. The server type or protocol
  2. WWW
  3. Domain Name
  4. Top-level domain
  5. File address on server

The server type or protocol

This is a basic type of protocol like http or https or ftp or gopher or any other protocol to define some rules and web server type.


Generally the web address or domain starts with WWW. It is also known as W3C, W3Consortium.

Domain Name

It is a unique name for a website on internet. It can be hosted on a particular server by hosting providers.

Top-level Domain

The top level domain defines the type of website such as .com, .edu, .org etc.

File address on server

This is a specific web page name saved into particular web server.

For example,


  • https – is a type of server or protocol. S stands for secure.
  • www – it is www consortium
  • tutorialaicsp – is a unique domain name
  • .com – is a top-level domain
  • /xii-ip/informatics-practices-class-12-python – is a folder and file stored on web server

Some common top level domains

The following table represents some common top level domains

Top-Level DomainMeaningUsed for
.comCommercialFor commercial purpose
.eduEducationFor educational purpose
.orgOrganizationFor organizational purpose
.milMilitaryFor military purpose
.govGovernmentFor government organizations
.coCompanyRepresents a company
.co.inCompany IndiaRepresents an Indian company, simlary for uk, for us, fo australia
top-level domains

URL types

There are two types of URLs.

  1. Absolute – A web address represents both the domain name and the folder/page
  2. Relative – A web address exclude the domain and represents only the filename

In the next section of internet and web Class 12 IP we are going to discuss about internet applications.

Internet Applications

Internet is used for so many purposes widely. In your syllabus three applications are given, so we will discuss them.

  1. Email
  2. Chat
  3. VoIP


The most common and popular tool on the internet is E-mail. It stands for Electronic Mail. It is a simple message service where the message can be sent to or by an individual or in groups anywhere. It just works like a simple mail sent and received by post office.

In email, e-mail servers are used to send and receive a message. For sending an email, you need an account to send an email. Similarly you also need recipient email ID. It is the best and economical way of communication.

The email address has a specific format like:


Where the username is the name with a combination of letters and numbers and the domain name is the website domain where the account is created. For examples,

Advantages of E-mail

  • cost
  • Speed
  • Waste reduction
  • Easy to use
  • Record maintenance

Limitations E-Mail

  • Required Internet
  • Required training
  • Hard to convey emotions
  • Impermanent

CC and BCC

While using email, you may hear these words. CC stands for Carbon Copy. CC emails can be sent a copy to multiple recipients. BCC stands for Blind Carbon Copy. BCC emails are not visible to other recipients of same email.

Spam Mail

Spam mail is an email sent for marketing purpose or to generate a lead or irrelevant or inappropriate mail to a huge number of people. The SPAM can be referred as Send People Alotta Mail.

Junk Mail

Junk mail is unwanted or unsolicited advertising mail or promo mail.

Protocols used in Email

There are certain protocols used in Email listed below:

  1. IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol) – This protocol is responsible for accessing emails from server.
  2. POP (Post Office Protocol) – It just work like as a Post Office.
  3. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – It used to send an email.

To read more about protocols, follow the below-given link:

Notes Network Protocols

The next section talks about chat for internet and web Class 12 IP.


Now a days you are using WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger and other app to do chatting. Chatting refers to an online text based conversation using such app or IM (Instant Messaging) software.

There are four types of chat:

  1. Instant Messaging – As we are using a few messenger software to chat. This software is capable to send or receive any text-based messages or send/receive files. ex. WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, WeChat etc.
  2. ICQ (“I Seek You”)– It offers to chat through ICQ software. This software is capable to chat, e-mail, file transfers, play computer games etc. It is owned by a company and an ICQ number is generated when you download it.
  3. IRC (“Internet Relat Chat”) – IRC software provides an IRC client program. IRC can spread through many networks. through IRC server.
  4. Web-Based Chat– These types of chat done through the browser and online on the website. For example, when you log in with any social media account like Facebook, Google a web based chat is integrated into the account itself.

The next topic is the last topic of internet and web Class 12 IP.


VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol. This technology is used to make audio and video calls through microphone and speakers. You must have used WhatApp call, Telegram Call, Facebook Messenger Call, Google Duo etc. VoIP allows transferring the call and data using Internet Protocol. The audio and video can be accepted as input and converted into digital information and transferred to another IP.


  • You can make a call over internet without any extra tool or app or charges
  • You can call a meeting using VoIP apps
  • Live interactions can be done using videos
  • User can present their screen and explain the topics using PPT or image or photo


  1. Both the sender and receiver should meet the software and hardware requirements of the tool or app
  2. There is no guarantee of audio or video calls
  3. If any packets dropped during the call, voice quality drops
  4. Poor voice quality due to network issues

I hope you understand the concepts very well. If you enjoyed this article – internet and web Class 12 IP, hit the like button and share this article in your social media groups.

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