Comprehensive notes Web Browsers Class 12 IP provides you detailed guide about web browser topic, which is part of Informatics Practices class 12 curriculum. So let’s begin!

Comprehensive notes Web Browsers Class 12 IP

As you are using the internet, you are familiar with web browsers. Web browsers are responsible to deliver web pages from a website.

A web browser is a program or software or application that renders a web page for the user. User need to provide a website address or URL.

In other words, A web browser helps users to get the data and information from the webserver. Some commonly used web browsers are Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, Apple Safari etc.

Web Browsers Class 12 IP
Web Browsers Class 12 IP

Basically web browsers are capable to retrieve hypertext documents, links, images, and other media from the webserver. It can also access the local file from file explorer.

Which one is the first web browser?

The first web browser was Mosaic. It was developed by the National Centre for Supporting Application (NCSA). It supports HTML documents containing a static web site. Later on with the advancement of technology modern web browsers support dynamic websites which include interactive contents, visual effects, encryption and decryption, and cookies settings.

Now in the next section of Web Browsers Class 12 IP we will talk about the parts of the web browser window.

Important parts of a web browser window

As a software application, a web browser window is having following parts:

  1. Title bar
  2. Toolbar
  3. Client area
  4. Status bar

Note: The parts which explained below are Chrome browser’s parts.

Parts of browser window - Web Browsers Class 12 IP
Parts of browser window – Web Browsers Class 12 IP

Title bar

It is located at the top of the web browser window. It displays the title of a web page along with the window control boxes – Minimize, Restore/Maximize and close button.


Every web browser contains a toolbar. This toolbar is generally located below the title bar and provides some buttons or icons to do the work on the browsers. These buttons and icons are:

  1. Back: It is used to navigate backward or moves to the previously visited page
  2. Forward: Moves towards forwarding where the page is back
  3. Refresh: It is used to reload the page or refresh, you can also use the F5 key to reload the page
  4. Address bar: Here you can type the URL of particular web site
  5. Bookmark button: This button allows to save the current page as a bookmark
  6. Extensions: If you have installed any extension for your browser it will be available over here
  7. Customize Menu: Here user can access the menu of browser

Client Area/Content Area

This is the main component of a browser window. This is the area where the contents of a web page is going to be load. User mostly interact on the website through this area.

Status bar

This part of browser window generates some messages when web browser is performing some tasks.

In the next section of Web Browsers Class 12 IP we are going to discuss about the browser settings.

Browser Settings

The browser settings are the most important part of the browser for internet access. It defines how the browser will behave. User can apply various settings such as privacy settings, search engine preferences, autofill and autocomplete behaviour, cookies, theme and background customization etc.

As we have seen in the parts of a browser window, there is a customize setting button present at the top right corner with three dots. When you click on this button you will get the settings menu. Observe the following screenshot:

Browser Settings

The browser settings screen is divided into 2 parts.

  1. Left Pane: Left pane contains the list of settings options like Google account settings for Google Chrome, Autofill, Safety Check, Privacy and security, Appearance, Search Engine, Default browser, on startup, advanced, Extensions and about chrome
  2. Right Pane: Contains the settings

The next section of Web Browsers Class 12 IP talks about the settings options.

Google account settings

Google account settings for chrome browser00
Google account settings for chrome browser

This is the first part of settings in Google Chrome browser with following options:

  1. Google Account syncing: It will set the browser as its customized for the given account. It displays the Google Account and Turns On/Off button on the right side.
  2. Sync and Google Services: It provides the settings related to Google services like chrome sign-in, auto-complete, spells checks etc.
  3. Manage Accounts: This option land you on the Google Manage account page, if you wish to update anything.
  4. Change Name and picture: It allows to change the picture displayed at top right corner and name.
  5. Import bookmark and settings: This option allows to import bookmarks and settings from other browsers.

The next settings in this article – Web Browsers Class 12 IP is autofill.


Autofill Google chrome browser settings
Autofill Google chrome browser settings

This settings allows to save data when you are filling a form and gives you the suggestions whenever it is required in the future. It saves the following details:

  1. Passwords: It saves passwords for particular websites.
  2. Payment methods: This option saves the payment methods and fills them for future use.
  3. Addresses and More: This option saves the location based information for the reference.

After autofill we are going to discuss safety check for Web Browsers Class 12 IP.

Safety Check

This settings checks for the safety and updates for the google chrome. It will check for the updates, passwords, Safe browsing parameters and bad extensions installed on your chrome browser. Observe the following screen shot.

safety check on google chrome
safety check on google chrome

The next settings for Web Browsers Class 12 IP is privacy and security.

Privacy and Security

This option allows to clear the history, browsing data, cookies and other site data, security and site settings.

Privacy and security settings on browser


Generally, cookies are text files which store the browsing-related information on user’s computer. You can enable or disable cookies from these settings. You can either allow or block third-party cookies on your browser. Read more about cookies from here.


This setting allows you to enable safe browsing and protect you from accessing such dangerous websites. It provides three options like Enhanced Protection, Standard Protection and No Protection.

Site Settings

This setting contains options for location, camera, pop-ups and more. From here you can allow or block the access of location, camera, pop-ups etc.

Apart from this you can change the theme and colors using appearance and change the search engine settings like default search engine, default browser, On start up etc.

Now in the next section of Web Browsers Class 12 IP, we will discuss about Plugins or Add on or Extensions.

Plug-in or Add on or Extension

A plug-in or add on or extension is software that adds additional functionality to your web browser. It adds a number of features to web browsers. For example, enable emoticons, reading pdfs, languages etc.

I have installed TubeBuddy, Grammarly, Google Input Tools on my chrome browser.

How to check which extensions are installed on browsers?

To check the extensions first check the toolbar. Some of them are already present there in the toolbar. Rest can be viewed by clicking on the Extensions icon on the toolbar.

extensions on chrome

You can pin or unpin any extension on the toolbar any time by using this extension button. To view all the installed extensions, click on Manage Extensions option.

Manage Extensions on Google chrome

How to install extensions on Google Chrome Browsers?

Click on manage extensions option, a new window will appear. Type the required extension name in the search box and install it.

You can visit chrome store to install extensions.

That’s all from my side for this article comprehensive notes Web Browsers Class 12 IP. I hope you have enjoyed this article comprehensive notes Web Browsers Class 12 IP. If you anything for me you can share through the comment section.

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