Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12

Dear Students, In this article we are going to discuss about Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12. So lets we start!

Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12

Lets start the article Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12 by answering this question:

What is a network protocol?

When you are going to school, school has some set of protocols. Government offices have some set of protocols. Hence, First of all lets we discuss the meaning of protocol word. The dictionary meaning of protocol is as following:

The official procedure or system of rules governing affairs of state or diplomatic occasions. “protocol forbids the prince from making any public statement in his defence”

The original draft of a diplomatic document, especially of the terms of a treaty agreed to in conference and signed by the parties. “signatories to the Montreal Protocol”

So by this you can understand that some set of rules and regulations that governs communication is called a Protocol. The protocols are responsible for communication between sender, receiver and all other stakeholders in the network.

In the next section of Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12 lets we discuss need for protocol.

Need for protocol

To establish a good network and communication we need protocols. The points may consider as need for protocols:

  1. Flow Control
  2. Access Control
  3. Addressing

Flow control

We have different users at different locations having different speeds of data transfer. The data transfer may depends on the many factors. So in this case a device has to adjust this speed barrier otherwise some data will be lost.

For example, Workstation X sending data at 1 Gbps and Workstation Y receiving data at 512 Mbps. So here Workstation Y must intimae the Workstation X about the speed mismatch, hence Workstation X adjust the it accordingly.

Access Control

To save loss or corruption of data in the network, access control plays a vital role in this. Access control decides which nodes in a communication channel will access the link shared among them at a particular instance of time. If it’s not done then the data packets may collide when data will be sent by the same link simultaneously.


Addressing is also one of the important factors when we are working with the network. Every node or workstation in the network has its own and unique logical address. This address defines the source and destination of data in the network. This address is a numeric address which identifies the node or workstation in the network.

In nutshell, protocols are responsible for:

  • How computers are identified?
  • The conversion of data
  • Decide the source and destination
  • Ensure that all data reached to its destination without any loss
  • Rearrange the packets and process them

Now in the next section of Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12, let’s discuss the protocols given in the your curriculum document.


TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. It uses client-server model for the communication. In this protocol a client send a request to the server in the network.

The Internet Protocol defines a numeric address for each computer in the network, by this IP address, only each computer or node in the network is identified.

On the other hand, TCP ensures that data packets are properly divided into small units or not. It also ensures the path of the route from source to the destination. TCP guarantees the delivery of packets on the designated IP address. It is also responsible for ordering packets so they are delivered in the sequence.

Sometimes two packets can have different routes depending on the data traffic on the route and other factors. When it reaches to the destination these packets reassembled into the original message at the receiver’s end.

Our next protocol is FTP for Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

As the full form of FTP, it is responsible for file transfers in the network from one device to another device i.e. client to server and vice versa. It also works on client-server model just like some other protocols.

FTP provides two ways for data transfer:

  1. With login: Username and password based service
  2. Without login: Direct service without any login

When the request for file transfer, a connection will be set up between client and server. The user enters the username and password and then specifies the filename and location of the desired file. This will create another connection for file transfer. FTP also handle some issues like different convention for filenames, representation of data in different formats, and different directory structure.

The next protocol in Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12 is PPP.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

Point to Point Protocol creates a direct connection between two devices in the network. The authentication and direct link will be defined by this protocol. For example, Two devices like routers have a direct connection using PPP. In this scenario the direct connection will be established between internet users and the server of ISP through Model.

To use this protocol the network devices should have the duplex modes. PPP protocol maintains data integrity ensuring that the packets arrive in the proper order. If any data is damaged or any packet is lost while data transfer, will be intimated and asked to resend by this protocol.

After gettiing familiar with PPP, now we are going to talk about HTTP in Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

Whenever you are using a website, the address of website starts with http or https because it is the protocol which is used for access of World Wide Web. Tim Berners-Lee played a crucial role in development of HTTP at CERN in 1989 in collaboration with Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and World Wide Consortium (W3C).

As you know HyperText means a document which contain text or images linked together with another document. It is also one of the client-server based protocol. It plays an important role between web browser and web server by providing the access of HyperText from WWW with the format and transfer mechanism along with how the web server and browsers should respond to various commands.

A web page written in HTML is stored on a web server for access via its URL. When the user opens a browser and types the URL of a particular webpage, a link is created between a web browser (User Machine) and the webserver using HTTP. For example, when you enter in your browser, it sends a request to the web-server of our website where it is hosted. The HTTP response fetches the requested web page and serves to your browser.

In the next section of Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12 we are going to discuss SMTP.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

This protocol is used for mail transfer. It works on the message header and going into the outgoing mails. There one SMTP sender program take the mail from the outgoing mail list and send to the destinations. When the mail is delivered to the destination, it removes the corresponding receivers email address from the destination list and outgoing list. The SMTP receiver program accept each mail arrived from other emails and place them at appropriate user mailbox.

In the next section of Comprehensive Notes Network protocol Class 12 we going to discuss remote login (Telnet) protocol.

Remote Login – Telnet

The remote login – TelNet stands for Terminal Network. This is one type of application program that allows user to access the remote computer. It is also one client-server based program that allows local terminals to be the at the remote side. Click here to read more about telnet click here.

We have already discussed wireless and mobile communication protocols. Follow the below given link to read them.

Introduction to Internet and its applications

I hope you enjoyed this article. Hit the like button and share this article with your friends.

Feel free to ask your doubts in the comment section.

Follow this link to read all the contents of Class 12.

Computer Science Class 12

Leave a Reply