Introduction to Computer Systems and Organization
In today’s life computers plays a vital role in our day-to-day life. We are surrounded by computers nowadays. Most of our daily work is directly or indirectly connected with computer systems. Let’s discuss what is a computer system?
The computer systems and organization is a set of following components:
Hardware: Hardware is the tangible parts of computer systems such as Keyboard, Mouse, Hard Disk, Motherboard, etc.
Software: Software is the programs stored in computers those help to do user’s work and provides an interface to the user such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Excel, Adobe reader, etc.
Functions of Computer Systems
There are four main functions of the computer system:
- Input: The process of data feeding by the user (Data means raw facts and figures)
- Process: The actual work done in computers
- Output: The result of user’s task (It can be: On-screen (Soft Copy), On Paper (Hard Copy) or On Air)
- Storage: The process of saving data
Insights of Computer Systems and Organization
The computer system is just like an organization with different units. All units have their own functional parts or units to do a specific task. Look at the following diagram:
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
Its work like a manager of a company. It accepts a request from Input unit, then guides, directs, controls and governs the performance of the computer. It has three functional units:
1. CU (Control Unit) 2. ALU ( Arithmetic and Logic Unit) 3. Memory Unit
1. CU (Control Unit): It accepts the request from CPU and does not perform any task itself. It determines, guides and control the request and then send it to ALU.
2. ALU (Arithmetic and Login Unit): ALU accepts the request from CU and performs the required task. It checks the request for what kind of task to be performed such as arithmetic operation (Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication or Division) or Logical comparison such as (Less Than, Greater Than etc.). After completion of the task, it sends the request to the next unit.
3. MU (Memory Unit): It is the next functional unit of computer organization. It is responsible for storing data into computer storage locations. It stores data permanently or temporarily. Further MU is divided into two kinds of memory as follows:
The memory is main part of Computer Systems and Organization.
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Primary memory is also known as the main memory. Primary memory is a space where users can open their files for work. It works just like a table or desk in our offices. It saves data temporarily. It is classified as into the following categories:
- Cache Memory
RAM (Random Access Memory)
Data can be accessed randomly. It is volatile memory i.e. when power gets off data will be lost.
ROM (Read Only Memory)
It plays an important role in performing POST(Power On Self Test). It will check all the connected devices are working properly or not. Data cannot be edited once written.
It is used to increase the speed of operations of CPU. It is placed between RAM and CPU. It stores the copies of data from frequently accessed memory locations that reduce the average time required to access data. This memory is examined first when the CPU needs some data.
Secondary Memory role in Computer Systems and Organization
Secondary memory is also known as auxiliary memory. It stores data permanently. It has a larger storage capacity than primary memory. Data written on secondary memory must be brought up on to primary memory before use.
- It has magnetic storage to store data, retrieve data
- It has rotating platters coated with magnetic material
- These platters are paired with magnetic heads
- Magnetic heads are arranged on a moving actuator arm that read and write data to platter surfaces
- It is a non-volatile memory
- It has a large storage capacity compared to other secondary storage devices
IO and Battery are two devices which are performing the tasks of supplying input and output power in Computer Systems and Organization.
- It pronounced as “eye-oh”
- Refers to a program, operation or devices that transfer data to or from a computer and to or from a peripheral device
- The transfer is input for one device and output for another device
- Example: Writable CD
- Supplies power to a device that allows operating computer without power
- It runs computers several hours with power backup
- They are rechargeable components
- Three types of batteries are used in computers i. Backup Battery: These batteries hold computer settings such as date and time, other devices. Ex. CMOS Battery
- Main Battery: Main batteries refer to an alternate source of energy when the computer is not connected with the wall outlet Ex. Laptop Battery
- Bridge Battery: It allows us to remove the main battery and replace it without having to turn off the computer.
Memory units helps to decide the capacity and requirements of storage in Computer Systems and Organization.
- It is just like a cell; these cells are broken down into small units called bits
- Bit means a binary digit either 0 or 1
- 4 bits make up a nibble
- 8 bits make up one byte
- Every higher memory unit is equal to 210 of its lower units
Computer Systems and Organizations – Mobile System Organization
- A Mobile is a portable computer in hand
- It has a touch screen, call management system, front and rear camera, display system, memory like RAM as well as internal memory, SIM card, battery, speaker, and processor
- A processor of the mobile system has less power compared to computer systems as they are running of small batteries
- A mobile system has the following components:
- CPU handles instructions
- GPU assists the CPU to handle the visuals
- Camera ISP (Image Signal Processor) provides and handles camera functions
- Radio & 3G/4G Modem receives and transmits voice connections, 3G/4G enables the modem to send and receive digital signals
- Memory the controller provides a direct link to memory
- The battery system supplies power to the mobile
Computer Systems and Organizations – Software Concepts
As discussed earlier software is a program written in the programming language that allows doing specific tasks in computer. It is abbreviated as SW or S/W often. User needs to install them before use. There are two types of software:
- System Software
- Application Software
In Computer Systems and Organization, software plays vital role n operations. A computer is just like a rectangular box of hardware without software. The system software is responsible to perform some internal tasks of a computer system. There are two types of system software
The primary function of the Operating System is to provide a platform to user and make the computer usable. It allows to make the hardware run competently. The tasks of the operating system are device management, process management, user management etc. There are different types of OS such as Single User OS, Multi-User OS, Time-sharing OS, Real-time OS, Multi-tasking OS, Distributed OS etc.
It is a translator that translates a high-level language program to machine level language. There are three types of language processors such as Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter.
Application software carries out the important functions for Computer Systems and Organization with the help of programs. It provides special services or a specific task. This software is written by programmers to serve users as per their requirement. It is subdivided into categories such as Packages, Utilities, Customized Software, and Developer Tools.
The Packages are a special set of software that serves general-purpose Ex. MS Office, Adobe, DTP Software, Macromedia tools etc.
Utilities are helpful programs like basic editing, calculation, cleaning, rearranging, scanning files etc. Ex. Text Editor, Calc, Backup, Compression, Defragmenter etc.
Customized Software refers to tailor-made software that provides functions as per the requirement of people such as ERP software, Payroll Software, Hotel Management, Reservation System etc.
Developer Tools/IDE Tools
Developer tools are designed for the software developer to write code and compile, debugging, testing software Ex. Netbeans, Anaconda etc.
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