Comprehensive Notes on file handling python notes class 12

In this article Comprehensive Notes on file handling python notes class 12, we will provide you with an introduction to file handling and text files in python.

Introduction to file handling python notes class 12

As we know, Files are an essential part of computers. Everything stored in the computer is saved in files. These files are a collection of bytes stored in computers. Data can be represented in specific forms in files. These files can be accessed at any time. These files are saved with an extension or file types. They need a specific program to read data and write data. 

For Ex. Documents can be opened and read through Word Processing software such as MS Word, OO Writer, Word Star, etc.

File handling is the process of handling data by software including IO operations. These files stored in a directory on a hard drive. Whenever any operation is carried out, the file is opened and make available to write upon on reading purposes on RAM. 
In the next section, we will discuss what is the need for a data file in the context of the article – Comprehensive Notes on File Handling in Python class 12.

Need for a data file

The computer has a powerful feature of saving data. As you know data means raw facts and figures. and meaningful data is known as information. These data can be stored in a file. Whenever users need such data, data can be presented by files.
When you develop a program in python, the final output of the program is not available for future use. Data files serve this purpose.
 They can store the output in the following files and those files we will use in file handling python notes class 12:
  1. Text Files: It has an extension .txt. It can be directly opened by a text editor like notepad, Wordpad, etc. It is capable to handle textual data and information. The text files contain a series of lines. A line is a set of characters or strings. These characters can be in ASCII or UNICODE form. In the text files, each line is terminated by ‘EOL-End Of Line’ i.e ‘/n’ in python. 
  2. Binary Files: Binary files are capable to store large files such as images, videos, audio files, etc. These files have a specific pattern to read data in the correct type. These files don’t have any delimiter. They are easier and faster than text files. In binary files data interpreted by correct data type. Python provides specific functions to handles these data types and data files.
  3. CSV (Comma Separated Values) Files: It is a plain text file that contains a list of data. CSV files can be opened and operated by MS Excel and allow to export and import data. It can handle big data.  All the values are separated by a comma.

In the next section of Comprehensive Notes on file handling python notes class 12 data file operations are listed out:

Data file operations

The following tasks will be performed on data files.
  1. Creation of files
  2. Opening files
  3. Reading files
  4. Writing files
  5. Appending data in files
  6. Deleting Data from files
  7. Creating copy 
  8. Updating files data

Have a look at text files for Comprehensive Notes on file handling python notes class 12. 

Text Files

Open a text file:
Syntax:<file object> = open(file_name,access_mode)
file object : It is just like a variable or object
open(): It is a function with two parameters. 
  1. file_name: It accepts a file name with .txt extension.
  2. access_mode: It specifies the mode to access the file. The default mode is reading mode. These modes are a) r: to read a file        b) w: to write            c) a: append  contents
1. ‘+’ sign is used to open the file for both modes reading and writing after access_mode. When it is used the file pointer will be at the beginning of the file
2. ‘b’ along with above modes to work with binary files 
f = open(“MyFile.txt”,”r”) – Open file for reading
f = open(“MyFile.txt”,”w”)  – Open file for writing

In the next section of Comprehensive Notes on file handling python notes class 12 you will learn how to read the data from text file. 

Reading file

Python provides the following functions for reading files:
1) read(): To read the whole file, take a look in the following example.
Reading text file and displaying its contents in output
2) read(n): It read n number of characters from the beginning of the file. If the file contains less than n number of characters than it will read file up to EOF (End Of File).
Reading n no. of characters
3) readline(): It read a line from starting the place of cursor where its placed up to EOL (End of Line). 
Using readline() function in python
4) Reading entire file using readline(): 
Reading whole file using readline() function
5) readlines(): To read specific lines from text file
Reading whole file using readlines() function
6) Reading specific lines:
Reading a specific line from the text file
When a variable is assigned with fileobject.readlines() it stores no. of lines in a list with starting index 0(zero).

In the next section of Comprehensive Notes on file handling python notes class 12, you will learn how to write data into tex files. 

Writing to File

The following functions are used to writing into files.
1. write(): It takes a string as a parameter to write in the file. ‘n’ is used to specify the end of the string.
Using write() function 
2) writelines(): This method is used to write a sequence of lines, strings, tuples, etc in a file. 
Writing in text file using writelines() function
Four lines created in a list l and written in a text file using writelines() function.
The next section of Comprehensive Notes on file handling python notes class 12 is dedicated to the manipulation of data. 

Manipulation of Data

Program 1. Counting lower case characters from a text file
Program to count no. of lowercase characters from text file
Program 2. Counting words from a text file
Counting words from text file
Program 3. Counting no. lines starting with ‘S’ in the file
A program to print lines starting with ‘S’
Program 4. Count occurrences of a specific word in text file (Exact Match)
Program to search occurrences of a word from text files

tell() and seek()

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11 thoughts on “Comprehensive Notes on file handling python notes class 12”

  1. Great and worth appreciable work. Good source for begginers to understand a lot more.


  2. Pingback: Importing/Exporting Data between CSV files and Dataframes - TutorialAICSIP

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