Operating Systems – Cloud Computing Systems

This chapter is based on Operating Systems and Cloud Computing Systems. In this chapter the following topics  will be covered:

    1. The concept of Operating System
    2. Need for an Operating System
    3. A brief introduction to Functions of OS
    4. User interface
    5. Concept of cloud computing and cloud services (SaaS, IaaS, PaaS)
    6. Cloud (public/private)
    7. Blockchain Technology

The concept of Operating System

Class 11 Computer Science - Operating System Concepts
Class 11 Computer Science – Operating System Concepts
We have already discussed the basic computer organization. The computer system is just a rectangular box of hardware without software like an operating system. An operating system provides an interface to the user and communicates with hardware, users, and other programs. When you start a computer you will get the operating system splash screen followed by a splash screen of manufacture company. This operating system handles almost 90% of the tasks on the computer along with the hardware, software, and user. It manages users, resources, and tasks on the computer. 

The need for Operating System

The following are the need for Operating System:
  • Provide a platform: An operating system provides a platform to users for running various programs. It allows an interface based platform to their users to work on the computers.
  • Run the hardware: Any newly added hardware needs a driver software to work upon it. The operating system then runs the hardware with the device manager. 
  • Resource management: An operating system manages all the resources of the computer system. It allocates various resources like RAM, CPU, Hard Disk, etc as and when required. 
  • File Management: The users working on computers can have different files. The operating system allows to manipulate the file with a file manager. This file manager determines the file system of the device and then performs the storage operations.
  • I/O device management: I/O means Input and Output operations. The operating system manages the input and output device request whenever the user performs a specific task on the computer.
  • Error management: While working with computers, you may face errors. This time error detection is very important. So the Operating System is responsible for the detection of possible errors and provides warnings, errors, or information related to the solution.

A brief introduction to Functions of OS

The operating system performs the following functions:
  • Processor Management: It is related to allocating CPU time for a specific process and process scheduling. There are different types of process scheduling based on the execution time of the process. Read more on types of processes
  • Device Management: There are many devices attached to the computers internally as well as externally with different ports. An Operating System provides a communication channel between devices and CPU.
  • Buffer Management: The data whether it is stored as input or output data will be stored temporarily on the system. This temporary storage is known as a buffer. When any signal or request sent to or from an input/output device to the CPU operating system manages them to send in an input buffer or output buffer.
  • Spooling: Spooling is used when multiple users are working on shared resources. Operating System stores related data whenever users work on multiple shared devices.
  • Memory Management: Computers are connected with CPU and memory. When any task is performed on computers the file or program needs to loaded first in the memory until the task is finished. When the task is finished, it will be made free to for another task by the Operating System. 

Some of the functions we already discussed in need for the Operating System topic. 

User Interface

Class 11 computer science - User Interface
Class 11 computer science – User Interface
The user interface or UI is a screen available on the computer or device when the user is working on a program or application. There are two types of UI:
  1. GUI: It stands for Graphical User Interface. It provides commands and program instructions with text and images. These interfaces are considered as User-friendly interfaces as users work on them just by click or tap. It provides good and attractive design including the best hands-on experience. Mouse and keyboard both can be used as input devices. One more benefit of this interface is the user need not remember any command or the method as its click to action commands.  
  2. CUI: It stands for Character User Interface It is more secure than a graphical user interface. Users must be trained to use such commands. Every command on CUI has a specific syntax that needs to be followed while working. In this type of interfaces, only keyboards can be used as an input device.

Click here to read more about UI.

Concept of cloud computing and cloud services

Class 11 computer science - Cloud Computing
Class 11 computer science – Cloud Computing
Cloud computing is simply related to computers on the cloud!!! Cloud refers to the internet here. As we have computers and saving our files and data in computers, similarly you can use cloud computing to save your data on clouds using different distributed systems. Some popular cloud computing systems are google drive, sky drive, iCloud, AmazonCloud. You can store your data and access them anywhere, anytime on the internet. There are different cloud services:
  1. IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service): A computer infrastructure based on building blocks that can be given on rent for a physical or virtual server, storage, and networking.
  2. PaaS (Platform as a Service): It is a platform-based service for the development, deployment, testing, and support of web applications. The concept of cloud hosting is an example of PaaS.
  3. SaaS (Software as a Service): It is a service which can be in the form of software or application used by the users. It involves the development and support system. 
There are two types of cloud computing:
  1. Private
  2. Public

Private Cloud Computing:

Private cloud computing is a cloud system provided by a person or firm. All the devices involved in private cloud computing are dedicated to that person or firm that provides private cloud computing.

Public Cloud Computing: 

The public cloud computing is provided by the public or common cloud services providers for the users. Under this category, all the devices and network resources are provided in a portal or a common system. These devices and resources can be shared by all the clients. Cloud computing is owned and operated by cloud providers. For example, google drive, sky drive. 

Blockchain Technology

Class 11 computer science - Blockchain Technology
Class 11 computer science – Blockchain Technology
Have you heard about bitcoin? Have you heard about cryptocurrency? If yes then you are familiar with blockchain technology. Yes, you are. Blockchain refers to a chain of blocks, where chain refers to a database and block refers to digital information. 
Blocks in the blockchain consist of digital pieces of information. It is made up of three parts:
  1. Information related to transaction:  Date, Time, and the amount for the specific transaction. 
  2. User information: Username, Digital Signature
  3. Codes: Unique codes generated during the transaction

For more details click here.

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